三肖中特精准24码免费公开 www.syysp.icu Modi proclaims a cleaner India, but the reality may be more murky
Every morning around dawn, dozens of people gather by the dusty banks of a stream snaking through Shikrawa village, two hours south of India's capital, New Delhi, to do the same thing: defecate in the open.
“There are close to 1,600 houses in Shikrawa. And I know for a fact that some 400 of those don't have toilets,” said Khurshid Ahmed, a village council official in Shikrawa, which is located in the northern state of Haryana.
Federal government records say Haryana - with its population of more than 25 million - is squeaky clean. The state, along with most others in India is classified “open defecation-free”, while a World Bank-supported nationwide survey says only 0.3% of Haryana's rural population defecates outside.
But interviews with over half a dozen surveyors involved in the World Bank-supported study, and two participating researchers, all raised significant concerns with the methodology of the survey, and its findings.
In Shikrawa, interviews with 27 people showed at least 330 villagers still defecate in the open because of a lack of toilets, issues with accessing water, or simply a dogged opposition to changing old habits. An hour away in the village of Nangla Kanpur, things aren't any different.
Studies link open defecation to public health issues, as it increases the spread of parasites due to water contamination. The World Bank said in 2016 one in every ten deaths in India is linked to poor sanitation.
In a country plagued by sexual assault crimes, the lack of toilets also disproportionately affects women, who have to walk long distances before dawn or after dark to relieve themselves.
In 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the “Swachh Bharat,” or “Clean India” campaign and vowed to eliminate open defecation nationwide in five years.
Modi, who is seeking re-election for a second term in polls that conclude on Sunday, has often used the success of Swachh Bharat in campaigning.
“We got more than 100 million toilets built,” he said at a rally in north India on Sunday.
Swachh Bharat, a multi-billion-dollar programme backed by money from the government and a World Bank loan, has indeed built millions of latrines, but critics say official statistics paint an overly optimistic picture of its success.
“The whole point of this is for people's health,” said Payal Hathi, a researcher consulted on the World Bank-backed survey. “It's unfortunate that the data is so misleading.”
Data from the World Bank-supported National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey (NARSS) that concluded in February shows that only about 10% of rural Indians defecate in the open. The survey was conducted using funds from a $1.5 billion World Bank loan for Swachh Bharat.
A separate study conducted over a similar timeline by the non-profit Research Institute for Compassionate Economics (RICE), where Hathi was a researcher, shows 44% of the rural population across four large states still defecate in the open.
譯文來源：三泰虎 //www.syysp.icu/47665.html 譯者：Jessica.Wu
Ashish Agarwal2 days ago
This was a long over due facility to citizen of the country. Won't believe it's 100% successful but it's a great step ahead in right direction even if it impacts 50% of the lacking population. Making it a success is a joint responsibility of government but more with users and change will come over time.
Aslam Khan2 days ago
@Ashish Agarwal, indeed. But one should not proclaim that their mission has been successful before it actually happens. According to WHO official stats 40% in india there is 40% open defecation in 2015. They claim by their own researches that there is only 4% open defecation. This is far fledge.
Babu2 days ago
A Leader gives his vision and provides funds for implementation. It is the public who has to make use of it and maintain it. MODI has done a great job in prioritizing this often neglected issue in a large country like India, Cleanliness has direct bearing on Health and Happiness of the nation.
Sudha2 days ago
Indian govt has distributed 12k per toilet per house. If people engulf it and say we have built toilet, then what can be done.
Mr. Kolkata2 days ago
At least efforts are underway and people are talking about it!
mardan2 days ago
@Sudha, instead of giving 12000 to people the Govt should have hired contractors to build it for them.
Karan2 days ago
@mardan, the contractor will show on paper that work has been done...... Ground reality may be different.... If work is done personally it is far better than contractor work.
Raju2 days ago
Within 5 years no country can achieve 100% target. But past 5 years at least he has improved cleanliness in railway station and rural areas than any other govt. But soon or latter India will improve its score under Modi.
Swiss Neutral2 days ago
There are visible improvements and it is an ongoing process. Modi is/was courageous to take such a step.
RationalBabu2 days ago
@Aslam Khan, pretty sure this problem is common to both countries. There is no place for smugness!
Ranajyoti2 days ago
The problem of Open defecation was acute in the said states and rightly surveyed for drawing out the successfulness of swacha Bharat in those states.
Vasudevan2 days ago
Before Modi none thought of cleaner India
Aslam Khana day ago
@RationalBabu , pakistan has only 12% open defecation. Pakistan's economic condition is bad from few years doesn't mean Pakistan is bad in everything. And i am not saying this you can check WHO open defecation percentages on their official website. Anything other than that is obviously biased only World Bank/WHO can claim official figures.
Agnostica day ago
People in village prefer it in open. Nobody can help them.
Singh.raa day ago
I have seen huge change in Haryana in last five years